Maternal Smoking And Neonate Respiratory Distress Syndrome
"Infants of smoking mothers are at decreased risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), a disease of lung immaturity."
Lieberman E, Torday J, Barbieri R, Cohen A, Van Vunakis H, Weiss ST, et al, "Association of intrauterine cigarette smoke exposure with indices of fetal lung maturation," Obstetrics and Gynecology, Apr l992, 79(4):564-70. [CDC Bib., l992-93, p.64]
"Infants of mothers who smoked had a reduced incidence of RDS [respiratory distress syndrome] for their gestation compared with infants of nonsmokers. The smoking effect was not explained by demographic differences between smokers and nonsmokers, nor by differences in the incidence of pregnancy complications between the two groups."
White E, Shy KK, Daling JR, Guthrie RD, "Maternal smoking and infant respiratory distress syndrome," Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mar l986; 67(3):365-370.
"The results of the present study might provide basic information to help to understand the clinical experiences reported by others, i.e. that in the newborn from a smoking mother, respiratory distress occurred less frequently than in those from non-smokers."
Nakamura K, Sagawa N, Nonogaki M, et al, "The effects of nicotine on the synthesis and secretion of surfactant in the rabbit fetal lung," Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. Acta Obstetrica et Gynaecologica Japonica, Nov l988, 40(11):1679-84. [CDC bib, l990, p.121].
". . . the respiratory distress syndrome had a lower frequency at very preterm gestational age in the neonates of smokers than of nonsmokers. The greater the number of cigarettes smoked, the lower were the frequency and the case fatality rate of the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome." More than 56,000 pregnancies which produced offspring were analyzed. Many other studies support this data.
Naeye, RL, Disorders of the Placenta, Fetus, and Neonate, CV Mosby, New York: l992, p.84. "Maternal asthma, paternal asthma, and premature birth, in that order, increased the risk of later childhood respirtory morbidity (OR 3.13, 95% CI 2.36 to 4.16; 2.23, 95% CI 1.62 to 3.05; 1.40, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.79). Conversely, babies who were small for gestational age appeared less likely to develop doctor diagnosed asthma or the symptom triad of cough, wheeze, and breathlessness in childhood, although this was not statistically significant (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.41).
Kelly YJ, Brabin BJ, Milligan P, Heaf DP, Reid J, Pearson MG, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Univ. of Liverpool, "Maternal asthma, premature birth, and the risk of respiratory morbidity in schoolchildren in Merseyside," Thorax, May 1995; 50(5):525-530.