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Cardiovascular Disease


LIST OF STUDIES ON CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN AGED NON-SMOKERS WHO HAVE BEEN ASKED TO GUESS THEIR EXPOSURE TO PASSIVE SMOKE THROUGHOUT THEIR ENTIRE LIVES

 
Related links
PROLOGUE The long list of methodological errors in the junk science of passive smoke The questionnaires of the epidemiological fraud Downloadable list of all base studies on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, including financing sources The list of all the lung cancer studies by category updated to 2006 on passive smoke: no dangers


Updated August 16, 2006

 

The latest, ignored study of Enstrom & Kabat!

Why ignored? because - once again - it shows that passive smoke does not cause disease.
Results: "An objective assessment of the available epidemiologic evidence indicates that the association of ETS with CHD death in U.S. never smokers is very weak. Previous assessments appear to have overestimated the strength of the association."

Updated Meta-Analysis on ETS and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in the US

As this study is a meta-analysis (compendium of previously conducted studies, or study on the studies), it is not listed together with the primary studies, or base studies).

Click here to download the PDF

How to read the list below

X
Number of the study

Study Title

The title of the study

Authors The authors and the year of the study
Published by The name of the scientific journal
Average Risk Here is recorded the average risk of the study expressed in RR [Relative Risk] and its extremes of variation [example: RR= 1.52 (1.0-2.5)], followed by hot link to the authority that has established the average risk [example: from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5]. Memory rule: RR=2 means 100% risk elevation, RR=3 means 200% and so on. Thus, RR=1.52 means 52% risk elevation.

The minimum risk elevation which, according to epidemiology, is necessary to seriously consider that the risk elevation is due the examined factor is over 200% or RR=3.

Financed by Here is the detail of what appears in the study concerning the source of financing. Example: :

Downloadable Click here to download. When this link is hot it is possible to download the entire original study in PDF format.
Comments In this area comments and notes concerning the study are reported when necessary.
 

STUDIES ON PASSIVE SMOKE AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (complete list updated May, 2006: 42 primary studies)

 

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1

Study Title Passive smoking as well as active smoking increases the risk of acute stroke
Authors Bonita R, Duncan J, Truelsen T, Jackson RT, Beaglehole R (1999)
Published by Tob Control 8(2):156-60
Average Risk RR= 1.82 (1.34-2.49) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 2004
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

2

Study Title The relationship of passive smoking to various health outcomes among Seventh Day Adventists in California
Authors Butler TL (1988)
Published by University of California at Los Angeles (dissertation)
Average Risk Females RR= 1.53 (0.9-2.5) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Males     RR= 0.61 (1.0-3.5) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Financed by

California University

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments Dissertation
 

3

Study Title The relationship of passive smoking to various health outcomes among Seventh-Day Adventists in California. ABSTRACT.
Authors Butler TL, (1990)
Published by Presented at the seventh world conference on tobacco and health.
Average Risk RR= 1.40 (0.51-3.84) from text.
Financed by

California University

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Comments  
 

4

Study Title Environmental tobacco smoke and prevalent coronary heart disease among never smokers in the Scottish MONICA surveys
Authors Chen R, Tavendale R, Tunstall-Pedoe H. (2004)
Published by Occup Environ Med. 61(9):790-2
Average Risk Table 8.1 of CALEPA 1997 reports : “ Self-reported exposure associated with significant trends in increasing angina, diagnosed and undiagnosed CHD. Serum cotinine not well correlated.”
Financed by

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Comments  
 

5

Study Title Case-control study of passive smoking at home and risk of acute myocardial infarction. Argentine FRICAS Investigators. Factores de Riesgo Coronario en America del Sur
Authors Ciruzzi M, Pramparo P, Esteban O, Rozlosnik J, Tartaglione J, Abecasis B, Cesar J, De Rosa J, Paterno C, Schargrodsky H (1998)
Published by  J Am Coll Cardiol 31(4):797-803
Average Risk RR= 1.68 (1.20-2.37) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 2004
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

6

Study Title Passive smoking and the risk of heart attack or coronary death
Authors Dobson AJ, Alexander HM, Heller RF, Lloyd DM (1991)
Published by Med J Aust 154:793-797
Average Risk Males                     RR= 0.97 (0.50-1.86) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Males at work      RR= 0.95 (0.51-1.78) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Females                RR= 2.46 (1.47-4.13) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Females at work  RR= 0.66 (0.17-2.62) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Financed by

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Comments  
 

7

Study Title Environmental tobacco smoke and tobacco related mortality in a prospective study of Californians, 1960-98
Authors Enstrom JE, Kabat GC (2003)
Published by Br Med J 326(7398):1057-66
Average Risk RR= 0.94 (0.85-1.05) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 2004
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments The whole study, costing several million dollars, was financed by state funding and funds from the American Cancer Society, except for the last $75,000 needed for the compilation of the data. The money was denied when it became clear that the study would not have produced the "right" results and demonstrated that passive smoke was a danger. For that reasons, the two Authors were forced to turn to the Center for Indoor Air Research, financed by the tobacco industry, to complete the study. Using that as an excuse, all scientific journals refused to publish this important study except the British Medical Journal, which was crucified by the antismoking establishment, which has an obvious and huge interest in falsely representing passive smoke as a public danger. This study demonstrates conclusively that exposure to passive smoke cannot be measured.
 

8

Study Title Effects of passive smoking on ischemic heart disease mortality of nonsmokers: A prospective study.
Authors Garland C, Barrett-Connor E, Suarez L, Criqui MH, Wingard DL (1985)
Published by Am J Epidemiol 121(5):645-650
Average Risk RR= 2.3 from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997
Financed by

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Comments  
 

9

Study Title Women's passive smoking and coronary heart disease
Authors He Y , Li LS, Wan ZH, Li LS, Zheng XL, Jia GL (1989)
Published by Chinese J Preventive Med 23 (1): 19-22, 1989
Average Risk RR= 3.0 (1.3-7.2) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments Study written in Japanese
 

10

Study Title Passive smoking at work as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in Chinese women who have never smoked.
Authors He Y, Lam TH, Li LS, Li LS, Du RY, Jia GL, Huang JY, Zheng JS (1994)
Published by British Med J 308: 380-384.
Average Risk Home RR= 2.07 (0.8-5.6) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Work  RR= 2.42 (0.8-7.8) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

11

Study Title Passive smoking from husband as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in wome in Xi’an, China, who have never smoked.
Authors He Y, Lam TH, Li LS, Du RY, Jia GL, Huang JY, Shi QL, Zheng JS. (2000)
Published by In: Tobacco the growing epidemic. Proceedings of the tenth world conference on tobacco and health. 24-28 August 1997, Beijing, China. Spinger- Verlag, Berlin 2000.
Average Risk RR= 1.6 (0.94-2.9) from text.
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

12

Study Title Heart disease mortality in nonsmokers living with smokers
Authors Helsing KJ, Sandler DP, Comstock GW, Chee E (1988)
Published by Am J Epidemiol 127(5):915-922
Average Risk RR= 1.27 (1.1-1.5) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997
Financed by

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Comments  
 

13

Study Title Lung Cancer in Japan: Effects of Nutrition and Passive Smoking
Authors Hirayama T (1984)
Published by In: Lung Cancer: Causes and Prevention. Verlag Chemie International Inc. pp 175-195
Average Risk 1-19 cigarettes/day RR= 1.0 (0.9-1.3) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
20 + cigarettes/day RR= 1.3 (1.1-1.16) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Financed by

Information not available and not reported by the study

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Comments  
 

14

Study Title Passive smoking and cardiorespiratory health in a general population in the west of Scotland
Authors Hole DJ, Gillis CR, Chopra C, Hawthorne VM (1989)
Published by Br Med J 299:423-427
Average Risk RR= 2.01 (1.2-3.4) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997
Financed by

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Comments  
 

15

Study Title Passive smoking and 20-year cardiovascular disease mortality among nonsmoking wives, Evans County, Georgia
Authors Humble C, Croft J, Gerber A, Casper M, Hames CG, Tyroler HA (1990)
Published by AJPH 80(5):599-601
Average Risk RR= 1.59 (1.0-2.6) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

16

Study Title The Auckland Heart Study [Dissertation]
Authors Jackson RT (1989
Published by Unpublished dissertation - University of Auckland 1989, 157-172. Auckland, New Zealand
Average Risk Males     RR= 1.0 (0.3-4.3) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Females RR= 2.7 (0.6-13.6) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

17

Study Title Passive smoking and the risk of coronary heart disease among married non-smoking women
Authors Janghorbani M, Sadeghi-Golmakani N. (1997)
Published by Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran 11:203-
Average Risk RR= 1.34 (0.94-1.91) non smoking wives. From text.
Financed by

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Comments  
 

18

Study Title A prospective study of passive smoking and coronary heart disease
Authors Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hennekens CH (1997)
Published by Circulation 95(10):2374-2379
Average Risk RR= 1.81 (1.11- 3.28) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997
Financed by

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Comments  
 

19

Study Title Passive smoking and the risk of acute myocardial infarction
Authors La Vecchia C, D’Avanzo B, Franzosi MG, Tognoni G. (1993)
Published by Lancet 341:505-506
Average Risk RR= 1.21(0.57-2.52) From text.
Financed by

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Comments  
 

20

Study Title Ischemic heart disease and spousal smoking in the National Mortality Followback Survey
Authors Layard MW (1995)
Published by Regulatory Tox and Pharmac 21: 180-183
Average Risk Males     RR= 0.9 (0.9-2.6) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Females RR= 1.1 (0.7-1.5) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments Financed by the tobacco industry
 

21

Study Title Relationship of passive smoking to risk of lung cancer and other smoking-associated diseases
Authors Lee PN, Chamberlain J, Alderson MR (1986)
Published by Br J Cancer 54:97-105
Average Risk Males     RR= 1.24 (0.6-2.8) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Females RR= 0.93 (0.6-1.7) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments Financed by the tobacco industry
 

22

Study Title Publication bias in the environmental tobacco smoke/coronary heart disease epidemiologic literature
Authors LeVois ME and Layard MW (1995)
Published by Regul Toxicol and Pharmacol 21: 184- 191
Average Risk CPS-I, Males      RR= 0.97 (0.90-1.05) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
CPS-I, Females  RR= 1.08 (0.98-1.08) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
CPS-II Males     RR= 0.97 (0.89-1.09) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
CPS-II Females RR= 1.00 (0.88-1.14) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments Financed by the tobacco industry
 

23

Study Title Health effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in US adults: data from the 1991 National Health Interview Survey
Authors Mannino DM, Siegel M, Rose D, Etzel R. (1995)
Published by ABSTRACT. Presented at the International Society for Exposure Analysis, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands.
Average Risk RR= 12% higher prevalence of CVD. From text.
Financed by

The Authors are functionaries of the US government, Centers for Disease Control

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Comments  
 

24

Study Title Increased incidence of heart attacks in nonsmoking women married to smokers
Authors Martin MJ, Hunt SC, Williams RR. (1986)
Published by ABSTRACT. Presented at the Annual Meeting, The American Public Health Association
Average Risk RR= 3.4 (p
Financed by

The Authors are (or were) professors at the California University and University of Utah. No further documentation is available.

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Comments  
 

25

Study Title Coronary events and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a case-control study from Australia and New Zealand
Authors McElduff P, Dobson AJ, Jackson R, Beaglehole R, Heller RF, Lay-Yee R.  (1998)
Published by Tobacco Control 7:41-46
Average Risk RR= 1.99 (1.40-2.81)females. From text.
RR= 1.02 (0.81-1.28) males. From text.
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

26

Study Title Mortality associated with passive smoking in Hong Kong
Authors McGhee SM, Ho SY, Schooling M, Ho LM, Thomas GN, Hedley AJ, Mak KJ, Peto R, Lam TH. (2005)
Published by BMJ 330: 287-288
Average Risk RR= 1.36 (1.02 to 1.81)
Financed by

Hong Kong Health Services Research Committee ([631012) and Hong Kong Council on Smoking and Health

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

27

Study Title Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and the risk of heart attack
Authors Muscat JE and Wynder EL (1995)
Published by Int J Epidemiol 24: 715-719
Average Risk Males      RR= 1.1 (0.4-2.8) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Females  RR= 1.7 (0.5-5.9) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

28

Study Title Risk stratification of coronary heart disease through established and emerging lifestyle factors in a Mediterranean population: CARDIO 2000 epidemiological study
Authors Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Chrysohoou C, Christodoulos S, Toutouzas P. (2001)
Published by Cardiovasc Risk 8:329-335
Average Risk RR= 2.12 (1.75-2.44) from text.
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

29

Study Title Risk stratification of coronary heart disease in Greece: Final results from the CARDIO 2000 epidemiological study
Authors Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Chrysohoou C, Christodoulos S, Toutouzas P. (2002)
Published by Preventive Medicine 35:548-556
Average Risk RR= 1.54 (p
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

30

Study Title Association between passive cigarette smoking and the risk of developing acute coronary syndromes: The CARDIO2000 study
Authors Pitsavos C, Panagiotakos DB, Chrysohoou C, Tzioumis K, Papaioannou I, Christodoulos S, Toutouzas P. (2002)
Published by Heart Vessel 16:127-130
Average Risk RR= 1.51 (1.21-2.99) from text
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

31

Study Title Passive smoking and myocardial infarction in women. ABSTRACT. CVD Epidemiologic Newsletter
Authors Palmer JR, Rosenberg L, Shapiro S. (1988)
Published by Council on Epidemiology, American Heart Association. No. 43, 1988
Average Risk RR= 1.2 from text
Financed by

Newsletter. No financing.

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

32

Study Title Environmental tobacco smoke and myocardial infarction among never- smokers in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP)
Authors Rosenlund M, Berglind N, Gustavsson A, Reuterwall C, Hallqvist J, Nyberg F, Pershagen G. (2001)
Published by Epidemiology 12(5):558-64
Average Risk < 20 cigarettes   RR= 1.02 (0.73-1.42) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 2004.
> 20 cigarettes   RR= 1.58 (0.97-2.56) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 2004.
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

33

Study Title Environmental tobacco smoke and non-fatal myocardial infarction among never-smokers
Authors Rosenlund M, Berglind N, Gustavsson A, Reutorwall C, Hallquist J, Nyberf F, Pershagen G. (2000)
Published by ABSTRACT. Twelfth Conference of the Society of Environmental Epidemiology. Buffalo, NY
Average Risk RR= 1.06 (1.0-2.6) from text
Financed by

Abstract presented to conference. No financing.

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

34

Study Title Deaths from all causes in non-smokers who lived with smokers
Authors Sandler DP, Comstock GW, Helsing KJ, Shore DL. (1989)
Published by Am J Public Health 79:163-167
Average Risk RR= 1.31 (1.05-1.64) from text Table 5
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

35

Study Title Reduced incidence of admissions for myocardial infarction associated with public smoking ban: before and after study
Authors Sargent, R. P.; Shepard, R. M., and Glantz, S. A. (2004)
Published by BMJ.328(7446):977-80
Average Risk Before smoking ban: acute myocardial infarctions 40/6 months.
After smoking ban: acute myocardial infarctions 24/6 months.
From text table 8.1, CALEPA 2004.
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments This study has been heavily criticized by many parties on both sides of the smoking issue. Classic example of junk science, it refers to the city of Helena, Montana, where a smoking ban was applied. The authors state that the number of heart attacks reported to the local hospital halved after only six months from the prohibition. Strong conflict of interest of one of the authors (Glantz) with the Johnson & Johnson pharmaceutical multinational that finances antitobacco and his studies through its philantropic arm Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
 

36

Study Title Do simple prudent health behaviors protect men from myocardial infarction?
Authors Spencer CA, Jamrozik K, Lambert L. (1999)
Published by Int J Epidemiol 28:846-852
Average Risk RR= 1.47. retrieved from text
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

37

Study Title Environmental tobacco somke and coronary heart disease in the American Cancer Society CPS-II Cohort
Authors Steenland K, Thun M, Lally C, Heath C Jr (1996)
Published by Circulation 94 (4): 622-628
Average Risk Males     RR= 1.22 (1.07-1.40) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Females RR= 1.10 (0.96-1.27) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997.
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

38

Study Title Effects of passive smoking in the multiple risk factor intervention trial
Authors Svendsen KH, Kuller LH, Martin MJ, Ockene JK (1987)
Published by Am J Epidemiol 126(5):783-795
Average Risk RR= 2.23 (0.7-6.9) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 1997
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

39

Study Title Passive smoking by self report and serum cotinine and the prevalence of respiratory and coronary heart disease in the Scottish heart health study
Authors Tunstall-Pedoe H, Brown CA, Woodward M, Tavendale R. (1995)
Published by J Epidemiol Community Health 49:139-143
Average Risk RR= 1.5 (1.1-2.0) from text Table 3
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

40

Study Title Passive smoking and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: prospective study with cotinine measurement
Authors Whincup, P. H.; Gilg, J. A.; Emberson, J. R.; Jarvis, M. J.; Feyerabend, C.; Bryant, A.; Walker, M., and Cook, D. G. (2004)
Published by BMJ. Jul 24;329(7459):200-5
Average Risk RR= 2.05 (1.14-3.69) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 2004
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

41

Study Title Ischemic stroke risk and passive exposure to spouses' cigarette smoking. Melbourne Stroke Risk Factor Study (MERFS) Group
Authors You RX, Thrift AG, McNeil JJ, Davis SM, Donnan GA (1999)
Published by Am J Public Health 89(4):572-5
Average Risk RR= 1.70 (0.98-2.92) from text table 8.1, CALEPA 2004
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

42

Study Title Association of passive smoking by husbands with prevalence of stroke among Chinese women nonsmokers
Authors Zhang S, et al.
Published by Am J Epidemiol 2005; 161(3):213-218
Average Risk OR = 1.32 (95%CI 1.01-1.72) for husbands smoking 10-19 cigarettes/day
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments  
 

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