Further Information

The puzzling association between smoking and hypertension during pregnancy | Zhang J, Klebanoff MA, Levine RJ, Puri M, Moyer P
Article Published: 1999

Details:
Risk: RR = 0.6 for gestational hypertension; 0.5 for preeclampsia
Type: Cohort
Significance: Statistically Significant Negative

Published By: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Dec;181(6):1407-13

Further Information


"After we controlled for prepregnancy body mass, age, socioeconomic status, and race, both past smoking and smoking during pregnancy were associated in a dose-response pattern with reduced risks of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. For women who smoked >/=10 cigarettes/d the relative risks with respect to women who had never smoked were 0.6 (95% confidence interval, 0.4-0.9) for gestational hypertension and 0.5 (95% confidence interval, 0.4-0.7) for preeclampsia. This protective effect was observed both for mild and severe gestational hypertension and for preeclampsia. The more and the longer a woman had smoked previously, the lower was her risk of development of hypertension during pregnancy."

"This association could not be explained by confounding factors, by changes in placental morphologic or histopathologic characteristics, by maternal net weight gain, or by elevated liver enzyme bioactivity."

"Conclusion: Smoking is associated with a reduced risk of hypertension during pregnancy. The protective effect appears to continue even after cessation of smoking."

Emphases added above. The title of this study speaks volumes about the prejudice and the superstition against smoking and the effect of tobacco on health, and betrays the ideology that tobacco is “only evil” and “only harmful.” The “puzzling,” in fact, can only exist with a prejudice in place, and not with a truly scientific and open mind. Furthermore, the benefits of smoking on health have been known for centuries, and long before the scientific era.

FORCES is supported solely by the efforts of the readers. Please become a member or donate what you can.



Contact Info
Forces Contacts
Media Contacts
Advertisers
Evidence Categories
Quick Look-Up
List of Methodological Errors in ETS Studies
Hill's Criteria and Authoritative Citations
What Must an Epidemiologic Study Warrant?
Table of All Studies on ETS and Lung Cancer up to 2006

Pie Charts of ETS/Lung Cancer Studies
How many cigarettes must be smoked to create an ETS danger?


Passive Smoking: an Institutional Problem
A 13-minute video to understand the fraud


If you like to read rather then listen, download
Now available for free