займ на карту с любой кредитной историей

Further Information

Cigarette smoking and breast cancer | JA Baron, PA Newcomb, MP Longnecker, R Mittendorf, BE Storer, RW Clapp, G Bogdan and J Yuen
Article Published: 1996

Details:
Risk: RR = 1.00, 1.10
Type: Case-Control
Funding Source: US Public Health Service
Significance: No Risk Change

Published By: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol 5, Issue 5 399-403

Further Information

"There was virtually no relationship between current smoking and breast cancer risk (multivariate odds ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.09), and former smokers had a barely increased risk (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.19). Similar results were observed among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. There was no suggestion that heavy or long-term smoking increased or decreased risk, nor were there indications that women who began smoking at an early age were at increased risk, as has been hypothesized. The results of this large population-based study indicate that smoking does not influence the risk of breast cancer, even among heavy smokers who began smoking at an early age."

Emphases added above. The authors comment: "Indeed, most previous studies have noted that cigarette smokers in general are not at substantially altered risk of breast cancer incidence compared to nonsmokers, conclusions that agree with our findings." And: "Thus, in aggregate, there appears to be no association of early smoking with breast cancer risk, even among heavy smokers ... Also, our questionnaire did not include items regarding passive smoking, but in the absence of an effect of active smoking, a major impact of such smaller exposures is implausible."

This huge study was supposed to close the debates on whether smoking did or did not "cause" breast cancer – and that would have been the case if ideology and pharmaceutical interests were not involved. Because the antismoking propaganda has little to do with real science, however, still today we hear that smoking is a major cause of breast cancer. It sure is false, but it sure is scary.


FORCES is supported solely by the efforts of the readers. Please become a member or donate what you can.



Contact Info
Forces Contacts
Media Contacts
Advertisers
Evidence Categories
Quick Look-Up
List of Methodological Errors in ETS Studies
Hill's Criteria and Authoritative Citations
What Must an Epidemiologic Study Warrant?
Table of All Studies on ETS and Lung Cancer up to 2006

Pie Charts of ETS/Lung Cancer Studies
How many cigarettes must be smoked to create an ETS danger?


Passive Smoking: an Institutional Problem
A 13-minute video to understand the fraud


If you like to read rather then listen, download
Now available for free