Further Information

Maternal Smoking and Down Syndrome: The Confounding Effect of Maternal Age | Chi-Ling Chen, Tim J. Gilbert, and Janet R. Daling
Article Published: 1999

Risk: RR = 0.87
Type: Case-Control
Significance: Statistically Significant Negative

Published By: Am J Epidemiol 1999;149:442-46

Further Information

Unreported by the media at its time, this study indicates no association between maternal smoking and Down syndrome – one of the literally hundreds of diseases that antismoking propaganda “attributes” to cigarettes.

“In summary, there is a substantial potential for residual confounding by maternal age in studies of maternal smoking and Down syndrome. In some prior studies, there could well have been downward bias in the risk estimates. However, among studies that have adequately taken maternal age into account, no clear relation exists between smoking and Down syndrome.”

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