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Further Information

Differences in lifestyle risk factors between smokers, non-smokers and passive smokers. A review of evidence from three studies and a comparison with some of the published literature | J. Hamling, P.N. Lee
Article Published: 1997/04/15

Details:
Type: Meta-Analysis
Published By: PN Lee Statistics and Computing Ltd

Further Information

Confounders, confounders…

This examination of epidemiological studies by Hamlin and Lee is useful to demonstrate the flimsiness of associations – and what gall “public health” has to call this “science.” Even the layperson can understand that this is actually travelling in the cosmic dark with a flash light, and claiming to be a star of knowledge.

Starting at page 3 of the document we read (emphasis added):

“The original HALS study found a significant association between household exposure (living with a smoker) and moderate alcohol consumption. Both the HALS follow-up (HALS2) and HSE93 found a significant association for men but found no such association for women. No association was found for either sex in HULS.”

“Matanoski et al (1995) found no association between drinking (versus not drinking) and exposure to husband’s smoking among American women never smokers but found that, among the women who drank, those exposed to ETS drank more than those not exposed.”

“Svendsen et al (1987) found a significant association, arnong men who had never smoked, between the number of drinks per week and the smoking status of their wives.”

“Friedman et al (1983) found that total hours per week of passive smoking (total of exposure at home, in other small areas and in large areas) was correlated with alcohol consumption of three or more drinks per day.”

“Our analyses found a positive association between coffee drinking and current smoking for each of the surveys except the original HALS survey, which showed a non-significant positive association for the small number of subjects who were heavy coffee drinkers. We also found a strong positive association between heavy tea drinking and current smoking in HALS and its follow-up. HSE93 found a small association between tea drinking (compared with drinking no tea) and smoking. Here very few people drank no tea.”

“In our analyses no significant associations were found between ETS exposure and coffee or tea consumption except for the men in the original HALS study. Here we found a strong negative association with heavy coffee drinking and a strong positive association with heavy tea drinking.”

None of the surveys we studied had any data on drug use or dependency.”

“Vega et al (1993) found that, among pregnant women in California, smoking was strongly associated with use of illicit drugs, those tested for being cannabinoid, cocaine, opiates and amphetamines.”

“Steenbergh et al (1995) found that, among US college students, smokers reported using a greater amount of marijuana and were 3.72 times more likely to use other illegal drugs than non-smokers.”
 
(FORCES’ note: it takes no rocket scientist here to figure out that ALL death and disease was, is, or will be “associated” with smoking for political purposes, as smoking is absolute evil that kills absolutely).

“Current smoking was found to be strongly associated with high fried food consumption in HALS and its follow-up, and with eating fried food in HSE93. No association was found with frequent fried food consumption in HULS.”

“HALS, its follow-up and HSE93 have data on the use of low fat or polyunsaturated fat spreads for bread. Each of these studies found a strong association between current smoking and not using these spreads.”

“Bolton-Smith et al (1993) found associations, for both sexes, of current smoking with low polyunsaturated fat intake, high cholesterol intake and low polyunsaturated-saturated fat ratio. These associations were stronger for men than for women. The associations of smoking with high total fat intake and high saturated fat intake reached significance for men only.”

“Fisher and Gordon (1985) found an association between heavy smoking and fat intake which was strong for men and for women using gonadal hormones but less strong for women not using hormones. However, Lee and Markides (1991) found no association between smoking and serum cholesterol level. McPhillips et al, (1994) found, in smokers compared with non-smokers, lower HDL levels, no relationship with total serum cholesterol but higher consumption of cholesterol and of total and saturated fat even after adjusting for energy intake from food.”

"In our analyses current smoking in women was strongly associated with being divorced, separated or widowed (or similar factor, according to survey). No significant association was found for men."

"Cardenas VM (1 994) found associations of self-reported ETS (versus none) with being married which were negative for men and strongly positive for women."

... Need we to go on? The study is 63 pages long, and it may well be one of the best straight-faced jokes (on the "science" of epidemiology rather than itself) of the 20th century.  Again: this is the “science” used by the mass-media and the “health authorities” upon which laws, capaigns, taxations, “education” in schools and a thousands other measures to kill our freedoms, mould our culture, and push drugs, are fantastically based.

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