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FORCES - Evidence by topic - Back to: Proving the lies of the anti-tobacco cartel: The Evidence

PARKINSON'S DISEASE IS ASSOCIATED WITH NON-SMOKING

(Studies listed by size)

Duvoisin RC, Eldridge R et al. Twin study of Parkinson disease. Neurol 1981; 31:77-80. 12 pairs. 1.0 ever/never; 0.4 current; all nonsignificant.
Ho SC, Woo J, Lee CM. Epidemiologic study of Parkinson's disease in Hong Kong. Neurol 1989;39:1314-1318. 34 PDs; ever/never 0.6 (0.2-1.3).
Tanner CM, Chen B et al. Environmental factors in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Can J Neurol Sci 1987;14:419-423. 35 PDs; ever/never 0.67 not significant.
Bharucha NE, Stokes L et al. A case-control study of twin pairs discordant for Parkinson's disease: A search for environmental risk factors. Neurol 1986; 36:284-288. 41 PDs; ever 0.4, p<0.05; current 0.4 p<0.05. Statistically significant less cigarette smoking by PDs.
[*] Doll R, Peto R. Mortality in relation to smoking: 20 years' observations on male British doctors. Br Med J 1976;25:1525-1536. 51 men; current/non 0.36 p<0.01.
Ngim C-H, Devathasan G. Epidemiologic study on the association between body burden mercury level and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Neuroepidemiol 1989;8:128-141. 54 PDs ever 0.61 (0.18-2.03).
Hertzman C, Wiens M et al. Parkinson's disease: A case-control study of occupational and environmental risk factors. Am J Ind Med 1990;17:349-355. 57 cases. Age-adj logistic regression ever s 0.40 (0.19-0.86).
[*] Grandinetti A, Morens DM et al. Prospective study of cigarette smoking and the risk of developing idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Am J Epidemiol 1994; 139(12):1129-1138. 58 definite PDs, ever smokers 0.39 (0.22-0.70).
Butterfield PG, Valanis BG et al. Environmental antecedents of young-onset Parkinson's disease. Neurol 1993;43(6):1150-1158. 63 PDs <50y; s p/d 15y prior 0.32 (0.15-0.67).
Hofman A, Collette HJA et al. Incidence and risk factors of Parkinson's disease in the Netherlands. Neuroepidemiol 1989;8:296-299. 86 PDs ever 0.6 (0.3-1.0), current 0.7 (0.4-1.4).
[*]Sasco AJ, Paffenbarger RS. Smoking and Parkinson's disease. Epidemiology 1990;1:460-465. C-c in 50k Harvard cohort, 96 PDs; smoked at college 1.0; adult current cig 0.51 (0.26-1.0). Most eventual smokers did not smoke at college.
Cazzato G, Capus L et al. Abitudine al fumo e morbo di Parkinson. Rivista di Neurologia 1985;55:79-87. 100 PDs; ever/never 0.4 sig. (Baron's calculation).
Rajput AH, Offord KP et al. A case-control study of smoking habits, dementia, and other illnesses in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Neurol 1987;37:226-232. 118 PDs; ever 0.7 (0.4-1.2). Reanalysis of subjects of 1984 study, with linear logistic regression.
[*] Hammond EC. Smoking in relation to the death rates of one million men and women. In: Haenszel W, ed. USDHEW NCI Monograph 19, 1966. 123 PDs; ever/ never RR 0.76 ages 45-64.
Barbeau A, Pourcher E. New data on the genetics of Parkinson's disease. Can J Neurol Sci 1982;9(1):53-60. 124 early onset PD; ever/never OR 0.4 (Baron's Calculation).
Jimnez-Jimnez FJ, Mateo D, Gimnez-Roldan S. Premorbid smoking, alcohol consumption, and coffee drinking habits in Parkinson's disease: A case-control study. Movement Dis 1992;7(4):339-344. 128 PDs; 11+c, p<0.005.
[Mean of Table 1, 0.63 11+/never].
Semchuk KM, Love EJ, Lee RG. Parkinson's disease: A test of the multifactorial etiologic hypothesis. Neurol 1993;43(6):1173-1180. 130 PDs; ever smokers 0.58 (0.33-1.02) adj; 0.48 (0.29-0.80) crude.
Stern M, Dulaney E et al. The epidemiology of Parkinson's disease. A case-control study of young-onset and old-onset patients. Arch Neurol 1991;48:903-907. 149 PDs; 0.5 (0.3-0.9).
Mayeux R, Tang M-X, Marder K, Ct LJ, Stern Y. Smoking and Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 1994 Mar;9(2):207-212. 150 PDs. Ever s adj for age & sex 0.8 (0.4-1.5); <30py 0.8 (0.4-1.5), >30py 0.6 (0.3-1.2).
Tanner CM, Koller WC et al. (abstr) Cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and Parkinson's disease: cross-cultural risk assessment. Movement Disorders 1990; 5(suppl 1):11. US: 150 PDs OR 0.2 p<0.0001.
Kondo K. Epidemiological clues for the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Adv Neurol 1984;40:345-351. 166 PDs; ever/never, female 0.6 sig, male 0.4 sig (Baron's calculation).
Nefzger MD, Quadfasel FA, Karl VC. A retrospective study of smoking in Parkinson's disease. Am J Epidemiol 1968;88(2):149-158. 198 PDs; ever/never 0.44 sig.
Kessler II. Epidemiologic studies of Parkinson's disease. Am J Epidemiol 1972;96(4):242-254. 228 PDs; ever/never,female 0.56 p>0.05, male 0.38 p<0.001.
Baumann RJ, Jameson HD et al. Cigarette smoking and Parkinson disease: 1. A comparison of cases with matched neighbors. Neurol 1980;30:839-843; and Haack DG, Baumann RJ et al. Nicotine exposure and Parkinson disease. Am J Epidemiol 1981;114(2):191-200. 237 PDs. ever/never both sexes 0.46 p<0.001.
Godwin-Austen RB, Lee PN et al. Smoking and Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1982;45:577-581. 350 PDs; ever 0.52, current 0.40; dose-response 1-19=ref., 20+ 0.76 cur.
[*] Hellenbrand W et al. Smoking and Parkinson's disease: a case control study in Germany. Int J Epidemiol 1997 Apr;26(2):328-339. 380 PD pts. Ever s 0.5 (0.3-0.7), P<0.00005; current s 0.2 (0.1-0.4), versus never. Dose-response.
[*] Kahn HA. The Dorn study of smoking and mortality among U.S. veterans: report on eight and one-half years of observation. In: Haenszel W, ed. USDHEW NCI Monograph 19, 1966. 400 PDs; ever RR 0.36, current RR 0.30, vs. never.
Marttila R, Rinne UK. Smoking and Parkinson's disease. Acta Neurol Scand 1980; 62:322-325. 443 PD; ever/never 0.7 significant (Baron's calculation).
Kessler II, Diamond EL. Epidemiologic studies of Parkinson's disease. Am J Epidemiol 1971;94(1):16-25. 468 PDs; both sexes ever/never 0.66, p<0.05.
 
NOT SHOWN ON GRAPH
Busenbark KL, Huber SJ et al. Olfactory function in essential tremor. Neurol 1992 Aug;42:1631-1632. yes/no 1/15 PDs, 3/13 normal controls.
Dulaney E, Stern M (abstr) The epidemiology of Parkinson's disease: A case-control study of young-onset versus old-onset patients. Movement Disorders 1990;5(suppl 1):12. 75 onset <40y, 75 >60y. Smoking less frequent, no detail.
Golbe LI, Cody RA, Duvoisin RC. Smoking and Parkinson's Disease: Search for a dose-response relationship. Arch Neurol 1986;43:774-778. PDs only, no controls; 3693 questionnaires/30k sent. Claimed no dose-response.
 [*] Hirayama T. Epidemiological patterns of Parkinson's disease based on a cohort study. Tokyo: Japan Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1985. RR 0.6, trend (Baron). Unknown no. of PDs.
[*] Hirayama T. Health effects of active and passive smoking. In: Smoking and Health 1987. Proceedings of the 6th World Conference of Smoking and Health, Tokyo, 9-12 November, 1987. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, pp. 75-86. Smoker mortality ratio male 0.56, female 0.59. Number unknown.
Jansson B, Jankovic J. Low cancer rates among patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol 1985;17:505-509. 406 pts. Ever s M: 35% obs v 70% exp, F 10% v 45% (in general population). No RR given.
Morano A, Jimnez-Jimnez FJ et al. Risk-factors for Parkinson's disease: case-control study in the province of C ceres, Spain. Acta Neurol Scand 1994 Mar;89(3):164-170. 74 PDs. Analysis combined non- & light smokers, no ORs. ~46%mPD, 29%m controls & 100%fPD, 98.8% f controls non-smokers.
Tanner CM, Koller WC et al. (abstr) Cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and Parkinson's disease: cross-cultural risk assessment. Movement Disorders 1990; 5(suppl 1):11. China: 100 PD 41% s v 49.5% controls; no OR given.
Ward CD, Duvoisin RC et al. Parkinson's disease in 65 pairs of twins and in a set of quadruplets. Neurol 1983;33:815-824. 58 PD pairs; Less smoking by PD twins than non-PD, p<0.01.
Wechsler LS, Checkoway H et al. A pilot study of occupational and environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease. Neurotoxicol 1991;12:387-392. 34 PDs. Ever s 50% v 64%, fewer y & cpd. No OR given.
 [*] Wolf PA, Feldman RG et al. (abstr) Precursors and natural history of Parkinson's disease: The Framingham Study. Neurol 1991 Mar;41(suppl 1):371. 77 PDs. Relationship to non-smoking in men only, no detail.
Zuber M, Verdier-Taillefer M-H et al. Smoking and Parkinson's disease: Differences according to age at disease onset. Neuroepidemiol 1991;10:103-104. 150 PDs; 44 v 36% nevers, nonsig.

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[*] = prospective study
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Additional references:

 
Methods for detecting and evaluating ascorbic acid deficiency in man and animals. HB Burch. In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol 92:269-275.
Humane requirements for Vitamin C and its use in clinical medicine. GA Goldsmith. In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol 92:230-245.
What are people really eating? The relation between energy intake derived from estimated diet records and intake determined to maintain body weight. W Mertz, JC Tsui, JT Judd, S Reiser, J Hallfrisch, ER Morris, PD Steele, E Lashley. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1991;54:291-295.
Smoking and Vitamin C levels in humans. O Pelletier. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Nov 1968;21(11):1259-1267.
Relationship between leucocyte and plasma ascorbic acid concentrations. HS Loh, CWM Wilson. British Medical Journal 25 Sep 1971;3:733-735.


Courtesy of Carol Thompson 08/23/93

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