Forces
Smoking Does Not Cause Congenital Heart Defects

> BACK TO FORCESMAIN PAGE /= p 3.5. [calculated crude risk ratio /=1p 1.0].

Andrews J, McGarry JM. A community study of smoking in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Common 1972 Dec; 79(12):1057-1073. Cardiff. 66 cardiovascular system abnormalities. Crude rates: nonsmokers 0.37%, smokers 0.42%. [calculated risk ratio 1.14].

Yerushalmy J. (letter re Fredrick). Nature 1973 Mar 23;242:262. Prospective. All races 38/115 (33%)s CHD v 5158/14,616 (35.3%)s no CHD; White 31/78 (39.7%)s v 3735/9812 (38.1%)s.

Christianson RE. The relationship between maternal smoking and the incidence of congenital anomalies. Am J Epidemiol 1980;112(5):684-695. Kaiser Child Health & Development Study. 12 malformation of circulatory system. Crude rates/1000 never 8.4, ex 10.7, 1-19c 6.6, >/=20c 10.8. [calculated risk ratio 1-19c 0.79, >/=20c 1.29].

Himmelberger DU, Brown BW, Cohen EN. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion and congenital anomaly. Am J Epidemiol 1978;108(6):470-479. Trace Anesthetic Study, retrospective mail survey of health professionals. 163 cardiovescular malformations, crude rates/1000: smokers 19.07, nonsmokers13.65 [calc. rel. risk 1.4].

Shiono PH, Klebanoff MA, Berendes HW. Congential Malformations and Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy. Teratol 1986:34:65-71. Kaiser - Permanente Prospective. 62 ventricular septal 0.5 (0.2-096): 22 heart valves 0.3 (0.1-1.1): 92 ductus arteriosus 1.1 (0.7-1.6): 16 unspecified 0.8 (0.3-2.6): 8 transposition 0.4 (0.04-2.9): 9 atrial septal defect 0.7 ( 0.2-3.5): 5 fibroelastosis 1.7 (0.3-10.1): 6 coarctation of aorta 0.5 (0.1-4.3). [calculated over-all odds ratio 0.78].

Evans DR, Newcombe RG, Campbell H. Maternal smoking habits and congenital malformations: a population study. BMJ Jul 21 1979; 2: 171-173. Cardiff. 223 cardiovascular malformations, crude rates/1,000: non 3.6, 1-9c 2.9, 10-19c 3.0, 20+c 2.8. [calculated risk ratios 1-9c 0.81, 10- 19c 0.83, 20+c 0.78].

Fredrick J, Alberman ED, Goldstein H. Possible teratogenic effect of cigarette smoking. Nature 1971 Jun 25;231:529-530. British Perinatal Mortality Survey, retrospective, 34/86 (39.5%)s 1 wk pop, 81/204 (39.7%)s v 4626/15, 719 (29.4%)s CHD 3 mo pop sample. 290 incident, smokers 7.3%, nonsmokers 4.7% [crude risk ratio 1.55]

McDonald AD, Armostrong BG, Sloan M. Cigarette, alcohol, and coffee consimption and congenital defects. AGPH Jan 1992;82(1), 91-93. 3/18 cardiovascular 1-9c 1.03 (0.6-1.6), 10-19c 1.17 (0.8-1.7), 20+c 1.17 (0.9-1.6).

Kelsey JL, Dwyer T, Holford TR, Brecken MB. Maternal smoking and congenital malformations: an epidemiological study J Epidemiol Commun Health 1978; 32:102-107. Retrospective case- random control at "several hospitals in Connecticut" Relative risks: 52 abnormal heart valves 1- 1.3, 0.4; 106 other 0.9, 1.0; 213 septal defects 1.0, 1.4. No combined results.

Van Den eden SK, Karagas MR, Daling JR, Vaughan TL. A case-control study of maternal smoking and congenital malformations. Paediatr Perinatal Epidemiol 1990;4:147-155. 88 patient doctus arteriosus 1.0 (0.6-1.6); 582 other 0.9 (0.7-1.1); 655 total cardiac 0.9 (0.8-1.2).

Milloy MH, Kleinman JC, Bakewell JM, Schramm WF, Land GH. Maternal smoking during pregnancy, No association with congenital Malformations in Missouri. AJPH 1989 Sep; 79 (9): 1243-1246. 123 atrial septal 1.04 (0.70-1.55); 151, valvular 0.74 (0.50-1.09); 447 ventricular septal 0.87 (0.70-1.09); 756 other cardiovascular 1.01 (0.86-1.19); 1341 heart 0.92 (0.82-1.05).

NOT SHOWN ON GRAPH:

HEINONEN OP, SLONE D, SHAPIRO S, EDS. Birth defects and drugs in pregnancy. Littleton, MA: Publishing Science Group, 1977, Collaborative Perinatal Project prospective. 404 congenital heart defects, smoking non significant in Multiple Logistic Regression, no details.


Courtesy of Carol Thompson 08/23/93
Smokers' Rights Action Group
P.O. Box 259575
Madison, WI 53725-9575
Phone: 608-249-4568

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