...And They Call This "Science"!

Lung Cancer Studies

Related links
PROLOGUE The long list of methodological errors in the junk science of passive smoke The questionnaires of the epidemiological fraud Downloadable list of all base studies on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, including financing sources The list of all the lung cancer studies by category updated to 2006 on passive smoke: no dangers

OTHER RELATED ISSUES

The passive smoke fraud: general scientific bibliography of studies and articles

The US Federal Court decision on the EPA fraud on passive smoke
Jetliner air may be hazardous, study says
Strict monitoring program recommended
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Since smoking has been forbidden on aircraft, the air exchange has been greatly reduced to save both fuel and free choice - for our own good!
Airliner Cabin Environment: Contaminant Measurements, Health Risks, and Mitigation Options - One must fly 48,440 hours non-stop to inhale the equivalent of one cigarette, and cosmic radiations are 507 times more dangerous than passive smoke. But smoking is forbidden.

May 1, 2006 - This list's title may sound sarcastic, but it is scientifically accurate. The exposure of the subjects through passive smoke through the years cannot be measured.

Inevitably, under the authority of the institutions who conduct them as well as those who provide the funding, these studies rely upon vague and non-verifiable memories, the ONLY basis upon which the imprimatur of "scientific evidence" on the harm of passive smoke rests.

Throughout the world laws "protecting" nonsmokers from passive smoke are justified based on the conclusions of these studies. Rather than separating smokers from nonsmokers and keep equal access rights for both, prohibition is used to promote intolerance and social engineering in order to further the financial agenda of certain multi-national pharmaceutical corporations, resulting in negative consequences for national economies, liberty and social coexistence. Upon this statistical trash very many other "dangers" are based, each requiring expensive regulation.

This list undoes the myth circulated by anti-tobacco operatives that passive smoke studies not reaching the conclusion that secondhand smoke is harmful are produced by researchers who are paid off by the tobacco industry. The studies on this list include financing sources as well as information on the authors. The list is not selective but complete. Risk spans and average risks are included as well. Each study can be downloaded in its entirety in PDF format.

Please note that none of these studies indicates that passive smoke is a significant risk factor, falling far below the 200% [RR=3], which is considered the threshold of significance for the existence of a risk by serious epidemiology. Note also that only one of these studies on passive smoke and lung cancer was financed by the tobacco industry.

PASSIVE SMOKE AND LUNG CANCER

PLEASE NOTE that this list consists of 75 studies. However, in another list published on our site about 150 passive smoke and lung cancer studies are listed. This is not a discrepancy. Since a study can examine risks for different categories, it can report, for example, a risk for exposure at home and on the work place as well. Another risk category could be exposure to passive smoke as children. Therefore the same study can have a multitude of results, explaining why in the comprehensive list there are so many more indications. Finally, a good part of the studies differentiates the risk for males and females, further inflating the number of permutations.

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To facilitate reading and indexing the studies, we offer the option of downloading this page in the printer-friendly PDF format. All hot links are preserved in the PDF format.

How to read the list below

X
Number of the study

Study Title

The title of the study

Authors The authors and the year of the study
Published by The name of the scientific journal
Average Risk Here is recorded the average risk of the study expressed in RR [Relative Risk] and its extremes of variation [example: RR= 1.52 (1.0-2.5)], followed by hot link to the authority that has established the average risk [example: from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5]. Memory rule: RR=2 means 100% risk elevation, RR=3 means 200% and so on. Thus, RR=1.52 means 52% risk elevation.

The minimum risk elevation which, according to epidemiology, is necessary to seriously consider that the risk elevation is due the examined factor is over 200% or RR=3.

Financed by

Here is the detail of what appears in the study concerning the source of financing. Example :

Downloadable Click here to download. When this link is hot it is possible to download the entire original study in PDF format.
Comments In this area comments and notes concerning the study are reported when necessary.

STUDIES ON PASSIVE SMOKE AND LUNG CANCER

1

Study Title

Studies of late adult lung cancer risk in nonsmokers, based on individual guesses of past lifetime personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)

Authors Akiba, S.; Kato, H.; Blot, W.J.
Published by Cancer Res., 1986;46:4804-4807
Average Risk RR= 1.52 (1.0-2.5) from USEPA 1992 , Table 5-5
Financed by


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2

Study Title Multicenter case-control study of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer in Europe
Authors Boffetta P, Aguado A, Ahrens W, Benhamou E, Benhamou S, Darby SC, et al.
Published by J Natl Cancer Inst., 1998;90(19):1440-50.
Average Risk Meta analysis RR= 1.11 (0.88-1.39) from CALEPA 2004. Table 7.2B
Financed by

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Comments  

3

Study Title Secondhand smoke exposure in adulthood and risk of lung cancer among never smokers: a pooled analysis of two large studies
Authors Brennan P, Buffler PA, Reynolds P, et al
Published by Int J Cancer, 2004;109: 125-131
Average Risk OR = 1.18 (95%CI 1.01-1.37)
Financed by

The U.S. study was supported by grant CA40095 from the National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD) with additional support from the Louisiana Cancer and Lung Trust Board and the Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center (New Orleans, LA). The European study was partially supported by the following grants: European Commission DG-XII (EV5V-CT94-0555) for the coordination; in France, Association pour la Recherche sur le Cancer, European Commission (90CVV01018) and Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Sociaux; in Germany 1, the Federal

Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology (grant 01 HK 546) and the Federal Ministry of Work and Social Affairs (IIIb 7-27/13); in Germany 2, the Federal Office of Radiation Protection, Salzgitter (St Sch 1066, 4047, 4074/1); in Germany 3, the Federal Office of Radiation Protection, Salzgitter (St Sch 4006, 4112); in Italy 1, MURST, the Italian Association for Cancer Research (AIRC), Regione Piemonte-Ricerca Finalizzata and Special Project "Oncology" Compagnia San Paolo/FIRMS; in Italy 2, the National Research Council (91.00327.CT04) and the Italian Association for Cancer Research; in Portugal 2, Comissa˜o de Fomento de Investigac¸a˜o em Cuidados de Sau´de; in Spain, the Spanish Ministry of Health (reference 89002300); in Sweden, the Swedish Match (8913/9004/9109/9217) and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (5330071-1); and in the United Kingdom, the Imperial Cancer Research Fund, the Department of Health, the Department of the Environment and the European Commission.

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4

Study Title Passive smoking and lung cancer in nonsmoking women
Authors Brownson RC, Alavanja MC, Hock ET, Loy TS.
Published by Am J Publ Health, 1992;82:1525-1530
Average Risk RR= 1.00 (0.8-1.2) from CALEPA, 1997. Table 7.5
Financed by


 

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5

Study Title Risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the lung
Authors Brownson, R.C.; Reif, J.S.; Keefe, T.J.; Ferguson, S.W.; Pritzl, J.A.
Published by Am. J. Epidemiol., 1987;125:25-34
Average Risk RR=1.52 (0.49-4.97) from USEPA, 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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Comments  

6

Study Title The causes of lung cancer in Texas
Authors Buffler, P.A.; Pickle, L.W.; Mason, T.J.; Contant, C.
Published by Mizell, M.;Correa, P., eds. Lung cancer: causes and prevention. New York: Verlag Chemie International, 1984;pp. 83-99
Average Risk RR=0.81 (0.39-1.66) from USEPA, 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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Comments  

7

Study Title The relationship of passive smoking to various health outcomes among Seventh-Day Adventists in California [dissertation]
Authors Butler, T.L.
Published by University of California at Los Angeles, California, 1998
Average Risk RR= 2.02 (0.48-8.56) from USEPA, 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by University of California at Los Angeles, California
Downloadable Click here to download
Comments This study is a dissertation and it has not been peer reviewed.

8

Study Title Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer Mortality in the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study II
Authors Cardenas V, et al.
Published by Cancer Causes Control, 1997;8:57-64
Average Risk RR= 1.2 (0.8-1.8) from CALEPA, 1997, Table 7.5B
Financed by


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9

Study Title Lung cancer in nonsmokers in Hong Kong
Authors Chan, W.C.; Fung, S.C.
Published by

1. In: Grundmann, E., ed. Cancer Campaign,v. 6, Cancer Epidemiology. Stuttgart, West Germany: Gustav Fischer Verlag, pp. 199-202, 1982

Average Risk RR= 0.75 (0.48-1.19) from USEPA, 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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10

Study Title Risk factors associated with lung cancer in Hong Kong
Authors Chan-Yeung M, Koo LC, Ho JC-M, Tsang KW-T, Chau W-S, Chiu S-W, Ip MS-M, Lam WK.
Published by Lung Cancer, 2003;40:131-140
Average Risk RR= 1.01 (0.47-2.18) from text Table 2
Financed by

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11

Study Title Passive smoking and lung cancer
Authors Correa, P.; Fontham, E.; Pickle, L.; Lin, Y.; Haenszel, W.
Published by Lancet, 1983;2:595-597
Average Risk RR= 2.07 (0.94-4.52) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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Comments  

12

Study Title The relation of passive smoking to lung cancer
Authors Dalager NA, Pickle LW, Mason TJ, Correa P, Fontham E, Stemhagen A, Buffler, P.A.; Ziegler, R.G.; Fraumeni, J.F.
Published by Cancer Res., 1986;46:4808-4811
Average Risk RR= 0.81 (0.39-1.66) from USEPA, 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by This study is associated with the Epidemiology Department of the US National Cancer Institute
Downloadable Click here to download
Comments Authors reported in USEPA 92 as: Buffler, P.A.; Ziegler, R.G.; Fraumeni, J.F.

13

Study Title Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in women with lung cancer
Authors de Andrade M, Ebbert JO, Wampfler JA, et al.
Published by Lung Cancer, 2004;43:127-134
Average Risk This is an histology mapping study. It reports no risk estimates
Financed by "We wish to thank additional contributors Drs. Claude Deschamps, Eric Edell, James Jett, Marie Christine Aubry, Mark Allen, and Julian Molina for their valuable input at various stages of this research project. We also thank Ms. Susan Ernst for her technical assistance with the manuscript. This work was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health Grants CA 77118 (Yang), CA 80127 (Yang), R01 CA 84354 (Yang), and R25 CA92049 (Ebbert)."
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Comments  

14

Study Title An epidemiological study of risk factors for lung cancer in Guangzhou, China
Authors Du Y, Cha Q, Chen X, Chen Y, Huang L, Feng Z, et al.
Published by Lung Cancer, 1996;14 (Suppl. 1):S9-S37
Average Risk See study 13 below.
Financed by


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Comments This study is combined with number 13 below.

15

Study Title Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and female lung cancer
Authors Du Y, Cha Q, Chen Y, Lei Y, Xue S
Published by Indoor Air. 1995;5(4):231-6
Average Risk RR= 1.19 (0.66-2.16) From CALEPA 2004, Table 7.2B
Financed by

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Comments  

16

Study Title Environmental tobacco smoke and tobacco related mortality in a prospective study of Californians, 1960-98
Authors Enstrom JE, Kabat GC
Published by Br Med JA, 2003;326(7398):1057
Average Risk RR= 0.75 (0.42-1.35) from the abstract of the study.
Financed by

Downloadable Click here to download
Comments The whole study, costing several million dollars, was financed by state funding and funds from the American Cancer Society, except for the last $75,000 needed for the compilation of the data. The money was denied when it became clear that the study would not have produced the "right" results and demonstrated that passive smoke was a danger. For that reasons, the two Authors were forced to turn to the Center for Indoor Air Research, financed by the tobacco industry, to complete the study. Using that as an excuse, all scientific journals refused to publish this important study except the British Medical Journal, which was crucified by the antismoking establishment, which has an obvious and huge interest in falsely representing passive smoke as a public danger. This study demonstrates conclusively that exposure to passive smoke cannot be measured.

17

Study Title Environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer in nonsmoking women. A multicenter study.
Authors Fontham ET, Correa P, Reynolds P, Wu-Williams A, Buffler PA, Greenberg RS, et al.
Published by JAMA, 1994;271(22):1752-9
Average Risk RR= 1.18 (0.96-1.46) from CALEPA 1997, Table 7.5
Financed by

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Comments  

18

Study Title Lung cancer in nonsmoking women: a multicenter case-control study
Authors Fontham, E.T.H.; Correa, P.; Wu-Williams, A.; Reynolds, P.; Greenberg, R.S.; Buffler, P.A.; Chen, V.W.; Boyd, P.; Alterman, T.; Austin, D.F.; Liff, J.; Greenberg, S.D.
Published by Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 1991 Nov; 1(1):35-334
Average Risk RR= 1.29 (1.03-1.62) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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Comments  

19

Study Title Lung cancer among Chinese women
Authors Gao, Y.; Blot, W.J.; Zheng, W.; Ershow, A.G.; Hsu, C.W.; Levin, L.I.; Zhang, R.; Fraumeni, J.F.
Published by Int. J. Cancer, 1987;40:604-609
Average Risk RR= 1.19 (0.87-1.63) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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20

Study Title Time trends in lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers and a note on passive smoking
Authors Garfinkel, L.
Published by J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 1981;6:1061-1066
Average Risk RR= 1.17 (0.85-1.61) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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21

Study Title Involuntary smoking and lung cancer: a case-control study
Authors Garfinkel, L.; Auerbach, O.; Joubert, L
Published by J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 1985; 75:463-469
Average Risk RR= 1.31 (0.93-1.85) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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22

Study Title On the relationship between smoking and female lung cancer
Authors Geng, G.; Liang, Z.H.; Zhang, G.L.
Published by In: Smoking and health. Elsevier Science Publishers, 1988;pp. 483-486
Average Risk RR= 2.16 (1.21-3.84) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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23

Study Title Cancer mortality in nonsmoking women with smoking husbands based on a large-scale cohort study in Japan
Authors Hirayama, T.
Published by Prev. Med., 1984;13:680-690
Average Risk RR= 1.53 (1.10-2.13) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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24

Study Title Lung cancer in Japan: effects of nutrition and passive smoking
Authors Hirayama T.
Published by Mizell M, Correa P, Eds. Verlag Chemie International, 1984;175-195
Average Risk Risk expressed as mortality ratio for the most exposed nonsmoking wives of smoking husbands:
Mortality ratio = 1.74 (95% CI 1.19-2.55) from Table 2
Financed by

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25

Study Title Passive smoking and cardiorespiratory health in a general population in the west of Scotland
Authors Hole, D.J; Gillis, C.R.; Chopra, C.; Hawthorne, V.M.
Published by Br. Med. J., 1989;299:423-427
Average Risk RR= 1.99 (0.24-16.7) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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26

Study Title Marriage to a smoker and lung cancer risk
Authors Humble, C.G.; Samet, J.M.; Pathak, D.R.
Published by Am. J. Public Health, 1987;77:598-602
Average Risk RR= 2.34 (0.96-5.69) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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27

Study Title Passive smoking and lung cancer in women
Authors Inoue, R.; Hirayama, T.
Published by In: Smoking and health. Elsevier Science Publishers, 1988;pp. 283-285
Average Risk RR= 2.55 (0.90-7.20) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by


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28

Study Title Lung cancer and exposure to tobacco smoke in the household
Authors Janerich, D.T.; Thompson, W.D.; Varela, L.R.; et al.
Published by N. Engl. J. Med., 1990;323:632-636
Average Risk RR= 0.86 (0.57-1.29) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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29

Study Title Effects of husbands' smoking on the incidence of lung cancer in Korean women
Authors Jee SH, Ohrr H, Kim IS
Published by Intl J Epidemiol., 1999;28(5):824-8
Average Risk RR= 1.9 (1.0-3.5) from CALEPA 2004, Table 7.2B
Financed by

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30

Study Title Environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer
Authors Jöckel K H, Pohlabeln H, Ahrens W, Krauss M
Published by Epidemiology, 1998;9:672-675
Average Risk RR= 1.12 (0.54-2.32) from CALEPA 2004, Table 7.2B
Financed by

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31

Study Title Lifetime residential and workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer in never-smoking women, Canada 1994-97
Authors Johnson KC, Hu J, Mao Y
Published by Intl J Cancer, 2001;93(6):902-6
Average Risk RR= 1.20 (0.5-3.0) from CALEPA 2004, Table 7.2B
Financed by

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32

Study Title Lung Cancer in Nonsmokers
Authors Kabat G, Wynder E
Published by Cancer, 1984;53:1214-1221
Average Risk RR= 0.79 (0.30-2.04) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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33

Study Title Relation between exposure to ETS and lung cancer in lifetime nonsmokers
Authors Kabat G, Stellman SD, Wynder EL.
Published by Am J Epidemiol., 1995;142:141-148
Average Risk RR= 1.08 (0.60-1.94) from CALEPA, 1977, Table 7.5
Financed by

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34

Study Title Passive smoking and diet in the etiology of lung cancer among nonsmokers
Authors Kalandidi, A.; Katsouyanni, K.; Voropoulou, N.; et al.
Published by Cancer Causes Control, 1990;1:15-21
Average Risk RR= 1.92 (1.02-3.59) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by


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35

Study Title Effect of passive smoking in lung cancer development in women in the Nara region
Authors Katada, H.; Mikami, R.; Konishi, M.; Koyama, Y.; Narita, N.
Published by Gan No Rinsho, 1988;34(1):21-27
Average Risk RR= click here and see comments.
Financed by vedi Comments
Downloadable Click here to download
Comments Study written in Japanese. The USEPA 1992 Reports mentions the study but does not report the RR value..

36

Study Title Risk Factors for Primary Lung Cancer Among Non-Smoking Women in Taiwan
Authors Ko YC, et al.
Average Risk RR= 1.3 (0.7-2.5) from CALEPA, 1997
Published by Int J Epidemiol, 1997;26:24-31
Financed by

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37

Study Title Measurements of passive smoking and estimates of lung cancer risk among nonsmoking Chinese females
Authors Koo, L.C., Ho, J.H.; Saw, D.; Ho, C.Y.
Published by Int. J. Cancer, 1987;39:162-169
Average Risk RR= 1.55 ( 0.98-2.44) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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38

Study Title Lung cancer in lifetime nonsmoking men - results of a case-control study in Germany
Authors Kreuzer M, Gerken M, Kreienbrock L, Wellman J, Wichmann H-E
Published by Br J Cancer, 2001;84(1):134-40
Average Risk RR= 0.96 (0.70-1.33) from CALEPA 2004, Table 7.2B
Financed by

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39

Study Title Environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer: a case-control study in Germany
Authors Kreuzer M, Krauss M, Kreienbrock L, Jockel K-H, Wichmann H-E
Published by Am J Epidemiol, 2000;151(3):241-50
Average Risk RR= 0.96 (0.70-1.33) from CALEPA 2004, Table 7.2B
Financed by

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40

Study Title A case-control study of lung cancer among Czech women
Authors Kubic A, Zatloukal P, Boyle P, Robertson C, Gandini S, Tomasek L, Gray N, Havel L.
Published by Lung Cancer, 2001;31:111-122
Average Risk RR= 1.17 (0.2-5.6) from text Table 4
Financed by

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41

Study Title Smoking, passive smoking, and histological types in lung cancer in Hong Kong Chinese women
Authors Lam, T.H.; Kung, I.T.M.; Wong, C.M.; Lam, W.K.; Kleevens, J.W.L.; Saw, D.; Hsu, C.; Seneviratne, S.; Lam, S.Y.; Lo, K.K.; Chan, W.C.
Published by Br. J. Cancer, 1987;6:673-678
Average Risk RR= 1.65 (1.22-2.22) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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42

Study Title A clinical and epidemiological study of carcinoma of the lung in Hong Kong (dissertation)
Authors Lam WK
Published by University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Average Risk RR= 2.51 (1.49-4.23) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Downloadable Click here to download
Comments The study is a dissertation and it has not been peer reviewed.

43

Study Title Risk factors for lung cancer in non-smokers in Xuanwei County of China
Authors Lan Q, Chen W, Chen H, He XZ. (1993)
Published by Biomed Environ Sciences 6:112-118
Average Risk RR= 1.15 (0.43-21.82) from text table 3
Financed by

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Comments The study is a dissertation and it has not been peer reviewed.

44

Study Title Lifetime environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and primary lung cancer of non-smoking Taiwan women
Authors Lee C, Ko Y, Goggins W, Huang J, Huang M, Kao E, et al.
Published by Intl J Epidemiol., 2000;29(2):224-31
Average Risk RR= 2.2 (1.5-3.3) from CALEPA 2004, Table 7.2B.
Financed by

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45

Study Title Relationship of passive smoking to risk of lung cancer and other smoking-associated diseases
Authors Lee, P.N.; Chamberlain, J.; Alderson, M.R.
Published by Br. J. Cancer, 1986;54:97-105
Average Risk RR= 1.03 (0.48-2.20) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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Comments Financed by the tobacco industry

46

Study Title Smoking and other risk factors for lung cancer in Xuanwei, China
Authors Liu, Z.; He, X.; Chapman, R.S.
Published by Int. J. Epidemiol., 1991;20:26-31
Average Risk RR= 0.74 (0.37-1.48) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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47

Study Title Indoor air pollution and lung cancer in Guangzhou, People's Republic of China
Authors Liu Q, Saasco AJ, Riboli E, Xuan Hu M.
Published by Am J Epidemiol., 1993;137: 145-154
Average Risk RR= 1.66 (0.73-3.78) from CALEPA, 1997
Financed by

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48

Study Title Mortality associated with passive smoking in Hong Kong
Authors McGhee SM, Ho SY, Schooling M, Ho LM, Thomas GN, Hedley AJ, Mak KJ, Peto R, Lam TH.
Published by BMJ, 2005;330:287-288
Average Risk RR= 1.38 (0.94 to 2.04) from text table
Financed by

Hong Kong Health Services Research Committee (631012) and Hong Kong Council on Smoking and Health.

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49

Study Title Passive smoking at home and cancer risk: a population-based prospective study in Japanese nonsmoking women
Authors Nishino Y, Tsubono Y, Tsuji I, Komatsu S, Kanemura S, Nakatsuka H, et al.
Published by Cancer Causes Cont., 2001; 12(9):797-802
Average Risk RR= 1.8 (0.67-4.6) from CALEPA 2004, Table 7.2B
Financed by

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50

Study Title Environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer in nonsmokers: does time since exposure play a role?
Authors Nyberg F, Agrenius V, Svartengren K, Svensson C, Pershagen G
Published by Epidemiology, 1998;9(3):301-8
Average Risk RR= 1.05 (0.60-1.86) from CALEPA 2004, Table 7.2B
Financed by

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51

Study Title Passive smoking and lung cancer in Swedish women
Authors Pershagen, G.; Hrubec, Z.; Svensson, C.
Published by Am. J. Epidemiol., 1987;125(1):17-24
Average Risk RR= 1.28 (0.82-1.98) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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52

Study Title Smoking, passive smoking and lung cancer cell types among women in Poland
Authors Rachtan J
Published by Lung Cancer, 2002;35(2):129-36.
Average Risk RR= 2.65 (1.47-4.80) from text table 5
Financed by

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53

Study Title Passive smoking and lung cancer in Chandigarh, India
Authors Rapiti E, Jindal SK, Gupta D, Boffetta P
Published by Lung Cancer (Ireland), 1999;23:183-18
Average Risk RR= 1.2 (0.5-2.9) from CALEPA 2004, Table 7.2B
Financed by

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54

Study Title A case-control study of lung cancer in Casablanca, Morocco
Authors Sasco AJ, Merrill RM, Dari J, Benhaim-Luzon V, Carriot F, Cann CI, Burial M.
Published by Cancer Causes Control, 2002;13:609-616
Average Risk RR= 1.36 (0.71-2.62) from text Table 3
Financed by

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55

Study Title Familial risk of lung cancer among nonsmokers and their Relatives
Authors Schwartz AG, Yang P, Swanson GM
Published by Am J Epidemiol, 1996;144:554-562
Average Risk RR= 1.1 (0.8-1.6) from CALEPA, 1997
Financed by

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56

Study Title Relation of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and pulmonary adenocarcinoma in non-smoking women: A case-control study in Nanjing
Authors Shen XB, Wang GX, Zhou BS.
Published by Oncology Reports, 1998;5:1221-1223
Average Risk RR= 0.83 (0.53-1.29) from text Table IV
Financed by

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57

Study Title A case-control study of lung cancer in nonsmoking women
Authors Shimizu, H.; Morishita, M.; Mizuno, K.; Masuda, T.; Ogura, Y.; Santo, M.; Nishimura, M.; Kunishima, K.; Karasawa, K.; Nishiwaki, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Hisamichi, S.; Tominaga, S.
Published by Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1988;154:389-397
Average Risk RR= 1.08 (0.70-1.68) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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58

Study Title Passive smoking among nonsmoking women and the relationship between indoor air pollution and lung cancer incidence-results of a multicenter case controlled study
Authors Sobue, T.; Suzuki, R.; Nakayama, N.; Inubuse, C.; Matsuda, M.; Doi, O.; Mori, T.; Furuse, K.; Fukuoka, M.;Yasumitsu, T.; Kuwabara, O.; Ichigaya, M.; Kurata, M.; Nakahara, K.; Endo, S.; Hattori, S. (1990)
Published by Gan To Rinsho, 36(3):329-333
Average Risk RR= 1.57 (1.07-2.31) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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59

Study Title Environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer risk in nonsmoking women
Authors Stockwell HG, Goldman AL, Lyman GH, Noss CI, Armstrong AW, Pinkham PA, Candelora EC, Brusa MR
Published by J Natl Cancer Inst., 1992; 84(18):1417-22
Average Risk RR= 1.6 (0.8-3.0) from CALEPA 1997, Table 7.5.
Financed by

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60

Study Title Smoking and passive smoking in relation to lung cancer in women
Authors Svensson, C.; Pershagen, G.; Klominek, J.
Published by Acta Oncol., 1989;28:623-629
Average Risk RR= 1.26 (0.65-2.48) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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61

Study Title Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and lung cancer among nonsmoking women in Harbin, China (Abstract only)
Authors Sun X
Published by Lung Cancer, 1996;14 Supp.1 : S-237
Average Risk RR= 0.86 (0.45-1.65), as reported in the abstract for non smoking women exposed to the spouse for over 35 years.
Financed by The funding is not declared in the abstract.
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Comments The funding is not declared in the abstract.

62

Study Title Lung Cancer and Passive Smoking: Conclusion of Greek Study
Authors Trichopoulos D, et al.
Average Risk RR= 2.08 (1.31-3.29) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Published by Lancet, 1983; 2:677-678
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63

Study Title Lung cancer and passive smoking
Authors Trichopoulos, D; Kalandidi, A; Sparros, L; MacMahon, B
Published by Int. J. Cancer, 1981;27:1-4
Average Risk RR= 2.08 (1.31-3.29) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by

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64

Study Title Environmental tobacco smoke and risk of respiratory cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in former smokers and never smokers in the EPIC prospective study
Authors Vineis P, Airoldi L, Veglia F, Olgiati L, Pastorelli R, Autrup H, Dunning A, Garte S, Gormally E, Hainaut P, Malaveille C, Matullo G, Peluso M, Overvad K, Tjonneland A, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boeing H, Krogh V, Palli D, Panico S, Tumino R, Bueno-De-Mesquita B, Peeters P, Berglund G, Hallmans G, Saracci R, Riboli E
Published by BMJ, 2005;330:277-281
Average Risk RR= 2.08 (1.31-3.29) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by European Community (5th Framework Programme) (grant QLK4-CT-1999-00927), Compagnia di San Paolo, Europe Against Cancer Programme of the European Commission (SANCO), Deutsche Krebshilfe, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Danish Cancer Society, Health Research Fund (FIS) of the Spanish Ministry of Health, Spanish Regional Governments of Andalucia, Asturia, Basque Country, Murcia, and Navarra, Cancer Research UK, Medical Research Council, Stroke Association, British Heart Foundation, Department of Health, Food Standards Agency, Wellcome Trust, Greek Ministry of Health, Greek Ministry of Education, Italian Association for Research on Cancer (AIRC), Italian National Research Council, Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports, World Cancer Research Fund, Swedish Cancer Society, Swedish Scientific Council, Regional Government of Skåne, Sweden, Norwegian Cancer Society, Research Council of Norway.
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65

Study Title Childhood and adolescent passive smoking and the risk of female lung cancer
Authors Wang FL, Love EJ, Liu N, Dai XD
Published by Int J Epidemiol, 1994;23:223-230
Average Risk RR= 0.78 (0.36-1.69) from text Table 4
Financed by

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66

Study Title Lung cancer and environmental tobacco smoke in a non-industrial area of China
Authors Wang L, Lubin JH, Zhang SR, Metayer C, Xia Y, Brenner A, Shang B, Wang Z, Kleinerman RA
Published by Intl J Cancer, 2000;88(1):139-45
Average Risk RR= 1.03 (0.6-1.7) from CALEPA 2004, Table 7.2B
Financed by

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67

Study Title A Comparative Study of the Risk Factors for Lung Cancer in Guangdong, China
Authors Wang SY, et al.
Published by Lung Cancer, 1996;14 (Suppl.1):S99-S105
Average Risk RR= 2.5 (1.3-5.1) from CALEPA 2004, Table 7.2B
Financed by

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68

Study Title Lung Cancer in Nonsmoking Chinese Women: A Case-Control Study
Authors Wang TJ, et al.
Published by Lung Cancer, 1996;14(Suppl.1):S93-S98
Average Risk RR= 1.11 (0.65-1.88) from CALEPA 2004, Table 7.2B
Financed by

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69

Study Title Smoking and other risk factors for lung cancer in women
Authors Wu, AH; Henderson, BE; Pike, M.D.; Yu, MC
Published by Natl. Cancer Inst., 1985;74(4):747-751
Average Risk RR= 1.41 (0.63-3.15) from USEPA 1992 , Table 5-5
Financed by

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70

Study Title Lung Cancer Among Women in North East China
Authors Wu-Williams A, et al.
Published by Br Med J, 1990;62:982-987
Average Risk RR= 0.79 (0.64-0.98) from USEPA 1992, Table 5-5
Financed by


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71

Study Title Relation Between Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer in Non-Smoking Women in Moscow
Authors Zaridze D, et al.
Published by Exper Oncol, 1994;16:441-445
Average Risk Not available.
Financed by

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Comments  

72

Study Title Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and risk of lung cancer in non-smoking women from Moscow, Russia
Authors Zaridze D, Maximovitch D, Zemlyanaya G, Aitakov Z, Boffetta P
Published by Intl J Cancer, 1998;75(3):335-8
Average Risk RR= 1,53 (1.06-2.21) from CALEPA 2004, Table 7.2B
Financed by

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73

Study Title Adenocarcinoma of the lung among women: risk associated with smoking, prior lung disease, diet and menstrual and pregnancy history
Authors Zatloukal P, Kubik A, Norbert P, Tomasek L, Petruzelka L
Published by Lung Cancer, 2003;41:283-293
Average Risk RR= 0.66 (0.22-1.96) from text Table 3
Financed by

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74

Study Title A case-control study of lung cancer and environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmoking women living in Shanghai, China
Authors Zhong L, Goldberg MS, Gao Y, Jin F
Published by Cancer Causes Cont., 1999;10(6):607-16
Average Risk RR= 1.1 (0.7-1.7) from CALEPA 2004, Table 7.2B
Financed by

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75

Study Title Indoor air pollution and pulmonary adenocarcinoma among females: A case-control study in Shenyang, China
Authors Zhou BS, Wang TJ, Guan P, Wu J.
Published by Oncology Reports, 2000;7:1253-1259
Average Risk RR= 1.01 (0.47-1.97) from text Table IV
Financed by

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