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Confounders are the Achilles’ heel of multifactorial epidemiology as, in the course of natural life, diseases stem from a vast multiplicity of known (or most often just suspected) factors that may interact in an astronomical number of ways. Differently from monofactorial diseases such as polio or tuberculosis, therefore, it becomes impossible to establish causality with any certainly. Yet, for smoking and other lifestyles, the opinions and guesses of people who cannot disentangle the interaction of confounders with any reliability are presented as hard scientific proof and without doubt. That is when ideologies, beliefs and superstitions pollute science and public health policies.

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Full 'Confounders' category Scientific Evidence Listing (8 documents)

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List of Methodological Errors in ETS Studies
Hill's Criteria and Authoritative Citations
What Must an Epidemiologic Study Warrant?
Table of All Studies on ETS and Lung Cancer up to 2006

Pie Charts of ETS/Lung Cancer Studies
How many cigarettes must be smoked to create an ETS danger?

Passive Smoking: an Institutional Problem
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